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Activity diagram is another important diagram in UML to describe the dynamic aspects of the system. Activity diagram is basically a flowchart to represent the flow from one activity to another activity. The activity can be described as an operation of the system. The control flow is drawn from one operation to another. This flow can be sequential, branched, or concurrent. Activity diagrams deal with all type of flow control by using different elements such as fork, join, etc.

The basic purposes of activity diagrams is similar to other four diagrams. It captures the dynamic behavior of the system. Other four diagrams are used to show the message flow from one object to another but activity diagram is used to show message flow from one activity to another. Activity is a particular operation of the system. Activity diagrams are not only used for visualizing the dynamic nature of a system, but they are also used to construct the executable system by using forward and reverse engineering techniques.

The only missing thing in the activity diagram is the message part. It does not show any message flow from one activity to another. Activity diagram is sometimes considered as the flowchart.

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Although the diagrams look like a flowchart, they are not. It shows different flows such as parallel, branched, concurrent, and single. Activity diagrams are mainly used as a flowchart that consists of activities performed by the system. Activity diagrams are not exactly flowcharts as they have some additional capabilities. These additional capabilities include branching, parallel flow, swimlane, etc.

Before drawing an activity diagram, we must have a clear understanding about the elements used in activity diagram. The main element of an activity diagram is the activity itself.

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An activity is a function performed by the system. After identifying the activities, we need to understand how they are associated with constraints and conditions. Once the above-mentioned parameters are identified, we need to make a mental layout of the entire flow.

This mental layout is then transformed into an activity diagram. Following is an example of an activity diagram for order management system.

In the diagram, four activities are identified which are associated with conditions. One important point should be clearly understood that an activity diagram cannot be exactly matched with the code. The activity diagram is made to understand the flow of activities and is mainly used by the business users. After receiving the order request, condition checks are performed to check if it is normal or special order.

After the type of order is identified, dispatch activity is performed and that is marked as the termination of the process. The basic usage of activity diagram is similar to other four UML diagrams.

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The specific usage is to model the control flow from one activity to another. This control flow does not include messages. Activity diagram is suitable for modeling the activity flow of the system.

An application can have multiple systems.In the previous chapters, we have discussed about the building blocks and other necessary elements of UML. Now we need to understand where to use those elements. The elements are like components which can be associated in different ways to make a complete UML picture, which is known as diagram.

Thus, it is very important to understand the different diagrams to implement the knowledge in real-life systems. Any complex system is best understood by making some kind of diagrams or pictures. These diagrams have a better impact on our understanding. If we look around, we will realize that the diagrams are not a new concept but it is used widely in different forms in different industries.

We prepare UML diagrams to understand the system in a better and simple way. A single diagram is not enough to cover all the aspects of the system. UML defines various kinds of diagrams to cover most of the aspects of a system. You can also create your own set of diagrams to meet your requirements.

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Diagrams are generally made in an incremental and iterative way. The structural diagrams represent the static aspect of the system. These static aspects represent those parts of a diagram, which forms the main structure and are therefore stable.

These static parts are represented by classes, interfaces, objects, components, and nodes. Class diagrams are the most common diagrams used in UML. Class diagram consists of classes, interfaces, associations, and collaboration. Class diagrams basically represent the object-oriented view of a system, which is static in nature.

Class diagram represents the object orientation of a system. Hence, it is generally used for development purpose. This is the most widely used diagram at the time of system construction. Object diagrams can be described as an instance of class diagram. Thus, these diagrams are more close to real-life scenarios where we implement a system. Object diagrams are a set of objects and their relationship is just like class diagrams. They also represent the static view of the system.

The usage of object diagrams is similar to class diagrams but they are used to build prototype of a system from a practical perspective. Component diagrams represent a set of components and their relationships.

These components consist of classes, interfaces, or collaborations. Component diagrams represent the implementation view of a system.

During the design phase, software artifacts classes, interfaces, etc.This is the Login Activity Diagram of School Management Systemwhich shows the flows of Login Activity, where admin will be able to login using their username and password. All the pages such as School, Classes, Registration are secure and user can access these page after login.

The diagram below helps demonstrate how the login page works in a School Management System. The various objects in the Classes, Teacher, Course, School, and Registration page—interact over the course of the Activity, and user will not be able to access this page without verifying their identity. School Management System Class Diagram describes the structure of a School Management System classes, their attributes, operations or methodsand the relationships among objects.

This is a Component diagram of School Management System which shows components, provided and required interfaces, ports, and relationships between the Classes, Registration, Teacher, Student and Course.

School Management System UML component diagramdescribes the organization and wiring of the physical components in a system. School Management System Data flow diagram is often used as a preliminary step to create an overview of the School without going into great detail, which can later be elaborated. It contains all of the userflow and their entities such all the flow of Students, Class, Teachers, Timetable, Fees, Attendance, Subjects.

All of the below diagrams has been used for the visualisation of data processing and structured design of the School process and working flow. The entity-relationship diagram of School Management System shows all the visual instrument of database tables and the relations between Students, Teachers, Schools, Registrations etc.

It used structure data and to define the relationships between structured data groups of School Management System functionalities. This is the Login Sequence Diagram of School Management Systemwhere admin will be able to login in their account using their credentials.

All the pages such as Teacher, Classes, Student are secure and user can access these page after login. The various objects in the Classes, Course, Registration, Teacher, and Student page—interact over the course of the sequence, and user will not be able to access this page without verifying their identity. It represents the methodology used in system analysis to identify, clarify, and organize system requirements of School Management System. Its shows the activity flow of editing, adding and updating of School User will be able to search and generate report of Teacher, Registration, Classes All objects such as Course, School, Classes are interlinked Its shows the full description and flow of Course, Registration, Classes, Teacher, School.

Posted By freeproject on August 2, School Management System Class Diagram describes the structure of a School Management System classes, their attributes, operations or methodsand the relationships among objects. Class Diagram Image:. Posted By freeproject on February 8, This is a Component diagram of School Management System which shows components, provided and required interfaces, ports, and relationships between the Classes, Registration, Teacher, Student and Course.

Component Diagram:. Posted By freeproject on April 5, School Management System Data flow diagram is often used as a preliminary step to create an overview of the School without going into great detail, which can later be elaborated. It also identifies internal data stores of Subjects, Attendance, Fees, Timetable, Teachers that must be present in order for the School system to do its job, and shows the flow of data between the various parts of Students, Teachers, Attendance, Subjects, Fees of the system.

You will highlight the main functionalities of School. It may require more functionalities of School to reach the necessary level of detail about the School functioning.

The entity Classes, Cources has binded with Schools, Students entities with foreign key There is one-to-one and one-to-many relationships available between Cources, Teachers, Registrations, Schools All the entities Schools, Cources, Classes, Registrations are normalized and reduce duplicacy of records We have implemented indexing on each tables of School Management System tables for fast query execution.

In this mini project is to provides keep the record of students, courses, attendance, fees. We have developed this mini project School Look into for more details.In this article we will discuss about Ectocarpus.

After reading this article you will learn about:- 1. Classification of Ectocarpus 2. Occurrence of Ectocarpus 3. Thallus Structure 4. Cell Structure 5. Growth 6. Reproduction 7. Fertilization 8. Life Cycle. Smith classified Phaeophyceae into 12 classes which were grouped in three subclass on the basis of their life cycles:. Ectocarpus is word-wide in distribution particulary in colder seas and Polar Regions.

Ectocarpus is very common on sea shore of Atlantic Ocean. Ectocarpus is found attached on sea rocks. Some species of Ectocarpus are epiphytic e. In India Ectocaupus is represented by about species. The plant body is mostly typically heterotrichous and differentiated into a creeping or prostrates system and b projecting an erect system. In some species one of the two systems may be reduced.

UML - Activity Diagrams

In epiphytic forms the prostrate system is well developed and the erect system is reduced. In many species of Ectocarpus, the thallus is sparingly to profusely branched, the cells are uniseriate, joined end to end in a row. In some species, the older portions of the main branches are corticated by a layer of descending rhizoidal branches.

In many species the terminal portion of a branch may end in a colourless hair with a basal meristem Fig. The cells are generally rectangular, uninucleate and the nucleus is placed in the region of the central vacuole, suspended by protoplasmic threads.

The cell contains a few parietal band shaped chromatophores with irregular branches E. Fucosan vesicles or granules are present in large number along with pyrenoid like bodies in the cell.

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The reserve food material is in form of laminarin and mannitol. The cell wall is differentiated into two layers, the inner firm layer is made of cellulose and the outer gelatinous layer contains alginic acid. The growth in the prostrate system is apical and in the erect system it is diffuse and intercalary.A use case diagram is a dynamic or behavior diagram in UML.

Use case diagrams model the functionality of a system using actors and use cases. Use cases are a set of actions, services, and functions that the system needs to perform. In this context, a "system" is something being developed or operated, such as a web site. The "actors" are people or entities operating under defined roles within the system.

Use case diagrams are valuable for visualizing the functional requirements of a system that will translate into design choices and development priorities. They also help identify any internal or external factors that may influence the system and should be taken into consideration.

They provide a good high level analysis from outside the system. Use case diagrams specify how the system interacts with actors without worrying about the details of how that functionality is implemented. System Draw your system's boundaries using a rectangle that contains use cases. Place actors outside the system's boundaries. Use Case Draw use cases using ovals. Label the ovals with verbs that represent the system's functions.

Actors Actors are the users of a system. When one system is the actor of another system, label the actor system with the actor stereotype.

Relationships Illustrate relationships between an actor and a use case with a simple line. For relationships among use cases, use arrows labeled either "uses" or "extends. An "extends" relationship indicates alternative options under a certain use case. You can quickly add shapes and users and connect them.

To add text, just click and type. When thinking of use cases, think of the end goal of a user. They don't want to "login" or "sign up.

The use case is more like "make a purchase. Actors don't have names. They're not "Bob. For a detailed implementation of a user's goal use a sequence diagram. Browse SmartDraw's entire collection of use case diagram examples and templates. Learn More. Why Make Use Case Diagrams? Get Started Sign up for SmartDraw free. Works on your Mac or any other device. Use Case - Class Registration. Use Case - Credit Card Processing.

Follow Us.VP Online makes diagramming simple, with a powerful diagram editor, and a central workspace to access and share your work. Collect data. Get feedbacks. Share results. No coding required. Get started with our easy-to-use form builder. Spreadsheet-based software for collaborative project and information management.

Our Site Map Diagram tool comes with a full set of Site Map Diagram icons and connectors that allows you to easily design your site's architectures. A rich collection of Site Map Diagram template and example are provided to help you get a head-start when creating your own Site Map Diagrams. Following are some of these templates. Click Edit to start now. No registration needed! The Simplest way to diagram and collaborate. Take a look at some of the great features.

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Add comments for discussions. We use cookies to offer you a better experience. By visiting our website, you agree to the use of cookies as described in our Cookie Policy. VP Forms. VP Tabular New. Diagram Editor. Diagram Templates.

Seamless Collaboration.A database schema is the blueprints of your database, it represents the description of a database structure, data types, and the constraints on the database. To help you determine the right tool for you to design database schema diagrams, we've curated a list of 5 of the best free online tools to do it.

Pricing : Free with unlimited objects and diagrams. Lucidchart is cloud-based and collaborative diagram software. Lucidchart helps your team create not only database diagram but also flowcharts, process maps, UML models, org charts.

Pricing : Free Beta with unlimited diagrams and objects. Insights from practitioners around the globe.

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In your inbox. Every week. No spam, ever. We respect your email privacy. Unsubscribe anytime. Business Intelligence for practitioners. Allows saving your diagrams to cloud storage services like GDrive, Dropbox and OneDrive, or to your own computer Visual interfaces not as nice as lucidchart.

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Free plan comes with a limit of 3 diagrams and 60 objects per diagram Good experience and collaborative Integrated with G Suite, Microsoft Office Good if you are more of a designer and want drag-and-drop interface SQLDBM Pricing : Free Beta with unlimited diagrams and objects SqlDBM offers you an easy, convenient way to design your database absolutely anywhere on any browser, working away without need for any extra database engine or database modelling tools or apps.

QuickDBD helps you quickly draw a diagram using just text input. It quickly captures ideas, and you can draw schema diagrams using only the keyboard. The Holistics Blog. Share this.


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